NanoCannabinoids

Improved Bioavailability

An Opportunity for Better Medications

Going forward and upon approval of our DEA application (expected Q2, 2017), Cannabinoids will be a major focus area of research at SGN as they are a great fit for Micellar Nanoparticle (MNP) technology. MNP technology is ideally suited to (a) increase bioavailability (b) deliver drugs effectively transdermally and for ophthalmic (eye) applications – much better than patch and gel technologies.  Further, it has been shown to significantly improve oral bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients which have already proven poor oral bioavailability.  Therefore, we believe our formulation platform to be ideally suited to deliver Cannabinoid therapeutics effectively and better than the existing formulations in development.

The chemical compounds found in the Cannabis plant, called cannabinoids, offer a variety of health benefits. Cannabis has been a medicinal plant of unparalleled versatility for millennia but whose mechanisms of action were an unsolved mystery until the discovery of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in 1964, the first cannabinoid receptor, CB1 in 1988, and the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were identified more recently. To date, over 80 phytocannabinoids have been identified and a host of medicinal properties ascribed to them. These advances in understanding of cannabis and endocannabinoids provide a profound opportunity for advances in effectively managing and treating a wide variety of illnesses.

The most well-known cannabinoid is the primary psychoactive chemical, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). While THC is what makes cannabis popular as a recreational drug, it is but one of over 400 compounds derived from the plant that may contribute to its therapeutic effect. THC can alter behavior, consciousness, mood and perception. Marijuana is often prescribed as a pain killer — one of the main health benefits of THC. However, most health benefits of marijuana are associated with the cannabidiol cannabinoid, known as CBD. CBD has been shown to be effective in treating Dravet syndrome in a Phase III study and is expected to be approved and sold under the drug brand name of Epidiolex.

“…we believe our formulation platform to be ideally suited to deliver Cannabinoid therapeutics effectively and better than the existing formulations in development”

Opportunities & Challenges

While the promise of cannabinoids is unparalleled, they will become an increasingly researched group of compounds giving birth to several medicines, yet there are key issues that need to be addressed before we see their therapeutic potential fully realized.

The two main challenges are:

  1. Delivery and bioavailability
  2. Stability

Cannabinoids as a class are extremely sensitive to acidic environments and degrade quickly in the stomach. In addition, they are further degraded in the liver, thereby making oral delivery impractical at present. Even though Epidiolex is expected to be approved for the treatment of Dravet Syndrome, its bioavailability is poor and would require large cultivations of the plant to generate enough drug for marketing. The best bioavailability is seen through inhalation – as smoke of the original cannabis plant – but that has significant associated negative side-effects related to smoke inhalation.

“Cannabinoids are a poorly water-soluble class of compounds and many degrade as pure solids. Hence formulating them and delivering them in a manner that provides significant bioavailability is a key challenge.”

SGN Nanopharma

A few industry players are developing Cannabinoid patches and gels to deliver these compounds transdermally. However, these transdermal delivery modalities have limitations. In contrast, SGN’s MNP Platform is ideal to deliver these molecules as nanoemulsions and we intend to develop several nanoformulations that will deliver Cannabinoids through skin, ophthalmic, oral and pulmonary routes. We believe we have validated technology that will be suitable to deliver these molecules to harness their significantly large medicinal potential.

Our key areas of focus for NanoCannabinoids will be:

  • TransNanoCannis: Transdermal delivery for pain relief and anti-inflammatory indications: Some cannabinoids (THC) are powerful anti-inflammatory agents with 2 times the power of steroids and 20 times that of aspirin (Russo, E.B., 2011, British Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, 163 1344-1364; Evans F, 1991, Planta Med, 57: 560-567). MNP Cannabinoid formulations entail individual as well as multiple synergistic cannabinoids in one formulation. These are designed to provide local as well as systemic therapeutic effects and are ideal transdermal formulations because of excellent skin penetration and spreading capabilities. Target indications will likely include Rheumatoid arthritis, pain, psoriasis, eczema. We expect to file our first IND in the US by mid-2018.
  • OPNanoCannis: For Ophthalmic Indications: We have developed traditional MNP formulations for ophthalmic indications including MNP Cyclosporine for dry eye, which is currently marketed in India.  We will apply the same formulation technology to develop MNP Cannabinoids for treatment of several ophthalmic indications.
  • CNSNanoCannis: Delivery of Cannabinoids to the brain: Delivering Cannabinoids across the blood-brain barrier remains a key hurdle. We are currently working on developing formulations that cross the blood-brain barrier in a significantly superior manner versus conventional non-nano formulations with the intention of developing of Cannabinoids to treat neural indications such as Alzheimer’s, and other disorders.  Given the demonstrated benefits of oral MNP formulations in improving bioavailability, we believe a great opportunity lies in developing oral nano-formulations of cannabinoids that have (1) enhanced bioavailability compared to current therapeutics such as Epidolex and (2) ability to readily cross the blood-brain barrier.

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